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You are here: Home » News » Vision-Based Autonomous Harvesting Robot

Vision-Based Autonomous Harvesting Robot

Views: 8     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2024-03-22      Origin: Site

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Project Feature Overview:

With the advancement of technology and the modernization of agriculture, improving agricultural production efficiency and quality has become a significant research focus. Among them, the fruit and vegetable harvesting process largely impacts the overall efficiency of the entire agricultural chain. Traditional manual harvesting methods are not only labor-intensive and inefficient but also increasingly challenging to meet the demands of large-scale planting bases amidst rising labor costs. Manual harvesting may also result in fruit damage due to improper handling, affecting the overall yield of the produce.

The development of autonomous harvesting robots based on vision recognition technology is an innovative solution to address these challenges. This project utilizes Raspberry Pi 4B as the main control chip, owing to its powerful computing capabilities and abundant expansion interfaces, allowing for the convenient integration of various sensors and actuators to achieve real-time image acquisition and processing in complex environments.

The project leverages object detection and classification algorithms from Baidu's PaddlePaddle deep learning framework to analyze high-definition images captured by the robot's mounted camera, accurately identifying the position, size, and ripeness of the fruits in real-time. Upon successful identification of the target fruit, the main control system rapidly calculates the optimal motion path for the robotic arm based on the recognition results, controlling its movement to the specified position to efficiently and damage-free harvest the fruit in the most suitable manner.

The purpose of the design and implementation of vision-based autonomous harvesting robot project is to address the bottleneck of manual harvesting in traditional agriculture. By integrating artificial intelligence and automation technologies deeply, it aims to enhance the intelligence level of orchard management, reduce labor costs, increase production efficiency, and promote the transformation of agriculture towards a more intelligent and efficient modern agricultural industry, not only in China but also globally.


Functionality Design and Implementation:

Vision Recognition: Leveraging high-performance cameras and image processing algorithms (utilizing Baidu's PaddlePaddle for target recognition and classification), the robot can capture images of fruits in the orchard and accurately identify the target fruits.

Localization and Navigation: Upon fruit recognition, the system calculates the spatial coordinates and distance of the fruit to determine the precise position the robotic arm needs to reach. Additionally, the robot navigates automatically to the vicinity of the target fruit based on environmental information and path planning algorithms.

Robotic Arm Control: Once the robot reaches the target position, the robotic arm adjusts its posture and movements automatically and accurately under the precise control of the system, enabling gentle and precise fruit picking. This process involves complex mechanical kinematics and collaborative control algorithms to ensure efficient and safe harvesting actions.

Fruit Collection and Handling: The harvested fruits are collected by the robot into dedicated containers for subsequent sorting, packaging, and processing. The system can also perform quantity counting and quality assessment of the harvested fruits, providing valuable data support for agricultural production.

The functionality implemented in this project constitutes a complete automated harvesting robot system, from vision recognition to robotic arm control and fruit collection and handling, forming an efficient and intelligent automated harvesting process. This not only greatly enhances the efficiency and quality of agricultural production but also demonstrates the broad application prospects of artificial intelligence technology in modern agriculture.


Hardware Module Composition:

(1) Main Control Board: The Raspberry Pi 4B development board is used as the main control chip of the entire system. Raspberry Pi is a powerful and easy-to-use computer board with high-performance processors, ample memory and storage space, and rich interfaces and expansion capabilities, which can meet the computational and control requirements of this project.

(2) Vision System: The vision system includes high-performance cameras and image processing units. The camera is responsible for capturing images in the orchard, while the image processing unit, based on Baidu's PaddlePaddle for target recognition and classification algorithms, processes and analyzes the images to identify and locate target fruits.

(3) Robotic Arm: The robotic arm is a key component for automated harvesting, consisting of multiple joints and actuators that can move and rotate freely in three-dimensional space. Through precise control algorithms, the robotic arm can accurately reach the position of the target fruit and perform picking actions.

(4) Sensors and Navigation Systems: To achieve automatic navigation and precise positioning, the project also integrates various sensors and navigation systems. These sensors can perceive environmental information such as distance, orientation, obstacles, etc., while the navigation system plans the best path for the robot based on this information.

(5) Power and Power Supply System: To ensure the continuous operation of the robot, the project also includes power and power supply systems. The power supply is responsible for providing stable power supply to various hardware modules, while the power supply system can adjust the power output according to actual needs to meet the energy consumption requirements of the robot in different operating states.

The hardware module composition of this project includes the main control board, vision system, robotic arm, sensors and navigation systems, power and power supply systems, and other auxiliary modules. These hardware modules work together to achieve the functionality of the vision-based automated harvesting robot system.


Design Approach:

(1) Requirements Analysis: Analyze the actual needs of orchard picking to clarify the problems to be solved and the goals to be achieved. Understand the environmental characteristics of the orchard, types and growth conditions of fruits, as well as the process and requirements of picking operations, to provide a basis for subsequent design.

(2) Technology Selection: Based on the results of requirements analysis, choose appropriate technical solutions. Select the Raspberry Pi 4B development board as the main control chip, utilizing its high-performance processor and abundant interface resources to achieve robot control and management. Additionally, employ Baidu's PaddlePaddle framework for target recognition and classification algorithms, achieving accurate identification and positioning of target fruits through the visual system.

(3) Hardware Design: Design the hardware structure of the robot based on the chosen technologies. This includes selecting and laying out the cameras to ensure clear and stable image capture; designing and selecting the robotic arm to adapt to the orchard environment and picking requirements; designing and selecting navigation and sensor systems to achieve automatic navigation and precise positioning of the robot.

(4) Software Design: Develop the control programs and algorithms for the robot. Implement target fruit recognition and positioning through image processing algorithms, and transmit the results to the navigation and control systems. Based on the information provided by the navigation and sensor systems, plan the robot's movement path and actions, and control the robotic arm to complete the picking process. Implement functions such as fruit counting, classification, and collection, as well as data storage and transmission.

(5) System Integration and Testing: Integrate various hardware modules and software programs, and conduct system testing and debugging. Ensure normal communication and cooperation between modules, and ensure that the robot can accurately identify and pick target fruits, and achieve functions such as automatic navigation and collection.

System Function Summary

Function Module Function Description
Visual Recognition - Capture orchard images with high-performance cameras
- Utilize Baidu's PaddlePaddle framework for target recognition and classification algorithms, identify target fruits
- Determine the spatial coordinates and distance of fruits
Navigation & Positioning - Automatically navigate to the vicinity of target fruits based on orchard environment information and path planning algorithms
- Integrate multiple sensors to perceive environmental information such as distance, orientation, obstacles, etc.
Robotic Arm Control - Automatically adjust posture and actions to pick fruits under precise system control
- Ensure efficient and safe picking actions
Fruit Collection & Processing - Automatically collect picked fruits into dedicated containers
- Count and assess the quantity and quality of picked fruits
- Provide data support for agricultural production decision-making
Communication & Monitoring - Enable remote monitoring and control functionality

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